档案馆与图书馆指南 Archive and Library Guides
The following guides have been prepared for the substantial records both in and outside of China documenting the history of Western medicine there. American holdings are largely records of the work of medical missionaries and the Rockefeller Foundation, while Chinese archives include public health records, government documents and institutional archives for hospitals and medical schools. This is only a selection of worldwide records on this subject and we hope to eventually include guides to other key repositories in the United States and China, and add guides for collections in the Republic of China (Taiwan), Japan, the United Kingdom, and beyond.
The Burke Library (Columbia University Libraries) at Union Theological Seminary, NYC *
Presbyterian Historical Society *
United Church of Canada Archives, Toronto *
NEW!: Peter Parker Papers (Cushing/Whitney Medical Library, Yale University)
医学院与医学机构数据库 Database of Hospitals and Medical Institutions
From the founding dispensaries by missionaries to the substantial medical infrastructure incorporated into the People's Republic of China in 1949, hundreds of institutions have left records of their work in China. Many institutions had multiple names in English and Chinese, while other small hospitals or medical schools were shuttered or formed larger and more efficient institutions.
Enter names, places, and keywords in the box below to search a database designed to help researchers track name changes and identify locations with historical materials about them. Suggestions are welcome.
医院与医学院报告类 Hospital and Medical School Records
These long runs of institutional reports provide information not only about individuals and institutional history, but also about diseases encountered in various regions from Canton (Guangzhou) in the south to Peking (Beijing) in the North.
- 博济医院报告 Canton Hospital reports, 1908-1941 (missing 1911-12, see Medical Missionary Reports below for earlier CHR)
- Foochow Missionary Hospital reports, 1872, 1884, 1886, 1896, 1901, 1903-04, 1917-18
- Pekin hospital, Pekin, China, Report, New York: Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions, 1887
- 协和医院报告 Peking Union Medical College / Hospital reports, 1908-1929 (missing 1910-1914, 1922)
- Peking Union Medical College, Addresses & Papers: Dedication Ceremonies and Medical Conference, Peking, China, 1922
- 齐鲁大学，燕京大学 Shantung Christian University (Cheeloo) and Yenching Universities, Agriculture Sanitation Medical work, 1939
- Soochow Hospital anniversary booklet, 1933
总报告与指南 General Reports and Guides
These guides and reports provide detailed “snapshots” of health and disease conditions, in addition to the development of medical personnel and institutions in China over time.
教会医学报告 Medical Missionary Reports, 1838-1921
- Thomas Colledge, The Medical Missionary Society, 1838
- Peter Parker, Statements respecting hospitals in China, London: Edward Suter, 1841
- Peter Parker, The first and second reports of the Medical missionary society in China: with minutes of proceedings, hospital reports &c, Macao: S.W. Williams, 1841
- Medical Missionary Society in China, Papers relative to hospitals in China, Boston: I.R. Butts, 1841
- Peter Parker, Statements respecting hospitals in China, prededed by a letter to John Abercrombie, Glasgow: J. Maclehose, 1842
- Peter Parker, Report of the Medical missionary society in China. For the year 1845, Victoria: Hong Kong Register Press, 1846.
- Medical Missionary Society in China reports, 1858-1885 (missing 1860-61, 1879)
- Records of the General Conference of the Protestant Missionaries of China, Shanghai 1890 (discussion and debate on medical missions, related charitable institutions, and opium work, 268-361)
- William G. Lennox, The Health of Missionary Families in China: A Statistical Study, Denver: University of Denver, 1920
- Balme, Harold. China and Modern Medicine, a Study in Medical Missionary Development. London: the Livingstone bookshop, 1921
海关检查医学报告 Chinese Imperial Customs Medical Reports, 1870-1910
- Imperial Maritime Customs Medical Reports
- Charles Gordon, An epitome of the reports of the medical officers to the Chinese Imperial Customs Service, from 1871-1882, London : Baillière, Tindall, & Cox, 1884
洛克菲勒医学调查 Rockefeller Medical Commission, 1914
- Medicine in China, Chicago: University of Chicago Press
中华医学会指南 Chinese Medical Association Guides, 1928-1940
- 中国医界指南 Chinese Medical Guides all institutions and medical workers (1928, 1930, 1932, 1937, 1940)*
Medical Periodicals offer one of the best "archives" of the history of medicine in China. Two of the most important are the China Medical Missionary Journal and its successor which ran from 1887-1931 (English only), and the National Medical Journal (1915-1931). These two merged in 1932 to become the Chinese Medical Journal (in Chinese 中華醫學會, 1916-present).
Full access to the National Medical Journal (and many other Chinese language medical journals) is available through the digital database 大成老旧刊全文数据库 at major research institutions in the U.S. and China (one month trial access may be available through your library). That database is missing the volumes scanned and available below for the years 1919 to 1923. See OCLC Worldcat for paper holdings.
博医会 China Medical Missionary Association, 1886-1907 (1907 name changed to China Medical Association, in 1932 merged with National Medical Association to form the Chinese Medical Association and Chinese Medical Journal)
- 博医会杂志 China Medical Missionary Journal 1887-1907 (English)
- 博医会杂志 China Medical Journal 1907-1931 (English)
中华医学会 National Medical Association (1915-1932, when it merged with China Medical Association, English name became Chinese Medical Association, Chinese Medical Journal).
- 中华医学杂志 National Medical Journal of China (Volumes 5-8, 1919-1923, missing 5.1 and 8.3)*
- 中华医学杂志 Chinese Medical Journal 1937-1966 (keyword search only, via Hathi Trust)
数字化照片与图像 Digitized Photograph and Image Collections
The following collections of images and photographs provide visual evidence of the evolution and variety of Western medicine in China from Lam Qua's grotesquely beautiful paintings of tumors, to black and white photographs of the vaccination work of ABMAC during WWII, to the stunning posters of the mass mobilization campaigns of the People's Republic of China. Please see each collection's website for copyright issues.
- 林官医学图像 Nineteenth-century medical portraits of Lam Qua, 1830s
Peter Parker Collection, Cushing/Whitney Medical Library, Yale University
- 孙逸仙与博济医院 Sun Yatsen and the Canton Hospital, 1866-1894
"求学与立志救国 (To seek knowledge and strive to save the nation)," Sun-Yatsen University Archives,
- 东北鼠疫照片 Manchurian Plague Photos, 1911
Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine, Harvard, Strong Papers
- 中国医学传教士 Medical Missions in China, c. 1910s-30s*
More than 100 images of missionary medicine and science from the MRL Collection at Burke Library, Columbia University
- 国际教会图像档案 International Mission Photography Archive, c. 1910s-1940s
More than 600 images related to medicine in China, multiple
- 北京大学医学部 Peking University Health Science Center, 1912-2012 (formerly National Medical College)
Historical Development of Peking University Health Science Center, PUHSC Archives
- 协和医院 Peking Union Medical College
China Medical Board, Photo Essay with primary documents, 1914-1949, Rockefeller Foundation Archives
- American Bureau for Medical Aid to China (ABMAC)*
Founded in 1937 to give aid to existing Chinese medical agencies, Butler Library, Columbia University
- 女医生在中国 Portraits of women doctors working in China, c. 1890-1939
Harvard University, Schlesinger Library, Radcliffe Institute (if error message, copy/paste entire title to browser)
解放后 People's Republic of China (1949 to present)
- 公共卫生宣传海报 Chinese Public Health Posters, 1933-1970
Curated by Liping Bu, held at the National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, USA
- 计划生育海报 Chinese Family Planning Posters, 1950s to present
Curated by Liping Bu, held at the National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, USA
The project is building a bibliography of relevant works in the history of Western Medicine in China. This bibliography is housed externally with Zotero to allow for better exporting and searching capabilities. Suggestions for additional references are welcome.*
优秀数字化本文类 Selected Electronic Texts
Selections below are organized by chronologically by period. Thanks to the Internet Archive and the Medical Heritage Library where many additional texts are available, with particular strengths in pre-1923 texts about medical missions.
- Francesco Maria Nigrisoli, Febris china chinae expugnata, seu, Illustr. aliquot virorum opuscula, quae veram tradunt methodum, febres china chinae curandi, Ferrariae: Apud Lilium, 1700
- William Baldwin, ed. A short practical narrative of the diseases which prevail among the American seamen, at Wampoa in China: in the year 1805 ... Philadelphia: Thomas T. Stiles, 1807
- William Lockhart, The Medical Missionary in China: a narrative of twenty years' experience, London: Hurst and Blackett, 1861.
- Charles Gordon, China from a medical point of view in 1860 and 1861, London: J. Churchill, 1863.
- John H. Dudgeon, The Diseases of China: their causes, conditions and prevalence, contrasted with those of Europe, Glasgow: Dunn & Wright, 1877
- Patrick Manson, The Filaria sanguinis hominis and certain new forms of parasitic disease in India, China and warm countries, London: H.K. Lewis, 1883
- Dugald Christie, Ten Years in Manchuria: A story of medical mission work in Moukden, 1883-1893, Paisley: J. & R. Parlane, 1895.
- Saneyoshi, Yasuzumi, Suzuki, S. The Surgical history of the naval war between Japan and China: during 1894-95; translated from the original Japanese report, Tokio: Tokio Printing Co., 1900
- Elliot I. Osgood, Breaking down Chinese walls, from a doctor's viewpoint, New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1908
- Omar Kilborn, Heal the sick: an appeal for medical missions in China, Toronto: Missionary Society of the Methodist Church, 1910.
民国时期 Republican Period:
- James Menzies, Link by link, Toronto: Board of Foreign Missions, Presbyterian Church in Canada, 1913
- Elma Paget, The claim of suffering, a plea for medical missions, London: Society for the Propogation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 1913
- Belle J. Allen, A crusade of compassion for the healing of the nations: a study of medical missions for women and children, West Medford, Mass.: Central Committee on the United Study of Foreign Missions, 1919
- John Charles Keyte, Andrew Young of Shensi: adventure in medical missions, London: Carey Press, 1924
- Albert Leroy Shelton, Pioneering in Tibet: a personal record of life and experience in mission fields, New York: Fleming H. Revell, 1925
解放后时期 People's Republic of China:
- Joseph R. Quinn, Medicine and Public Health in the People's Republic of China, Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health, 1973.
有关系的网站 Related Links
Links to the resources related to the larger history of medicine and science in China.
在华的美国医院 Accommodating the Chinese: The American Hospital in China, 1880-1920
Australian-based historian Michelle Renshaw's visual supplement to her 2005 book of the same name.
韩崧网站（约翰霍普金斯医学院医学史系） History of Medicine and Culture in China, Marta Hanson
Johns Hopkins historian of medicine in China, includes bibliographies, syllabi and links to relevant sources
席文网站， 中国科学医学史 Chinese Science and Medicine, Nathan Sivin
University of Pennsylvania historian of Chinese science and medicine, includes annotated bibliographies and other guides
文革医学与公共卫生 Morning Sun: Cultural Revolution Medicine and Public Health
Traditional vs. Western Medicine - what is the line between traditional medicine as cultural heritage and traditional medicine as feudal ignorance? Produced by Longbow group.
衛生與東亞社會 Hygiene in Asian Societies
Research group at Academia Sinica, Taipei, ROC
生命醫療史研究室 Research Group on the History of Health and Healing
at Academia Sinica, Taipei, ROC
Asian Society for the History of Medicine
D. Kim Foundation for the History of Science and Technology in East Asia
Dedicated to furthering the study of the history of science and technology in East Asia since the start of the 20th century through fellowhips and grants to graduate students and young scholars.
Needham Research Institute
A centre for the study of the history of East Asian science, technology and medicine.
EASTM: East Asian Science, Technology, and Medicine
Journal published by the International Society for the History of East Asian Science, Technology, and Medicine (ISHEASTM).
East Asian Science Technology and Society: An International Journal
Journal sponsored by the National Science Council of Taiwan, East Asian Science, Technology and Society: An International Journal (EASTS) aims to bring together East Asian and Western scholars from the fields of science, technology, and society (STS).
历史背景与文化网站 Contextual and Cultural Links
These links are helpful to demonstrate the role of imperialism, Christianity, and the urban environment upon the development of medicine in modern China.
麻省理工学院设想文化 MIT Visualizing Cultures
stunning images, essays on historical context of European and Japanese imperialism.
華人基督教史人物辭典 Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Christianity
Some Chinese Christian physicians and medical missionaries.
點睛論壇：中國基督宗教史研究電腦信息庫The Ricci 21st Century Roundtable on the History of Christianity
Archives for the history of Christianity in China.
虚拟天津 Virtual Tianjin
The focus of award-winning work on public health by Ruth Rogaski and Chinese historians like Yu Xinzhong, Tianjin's unique nine nation concession zone provides a comparative study of hygiene and medicine in semi-colonial China.
虚拟上海 Virtual Shanghai
Primary source maps, images, texts and essays by historians of Shanghai. About 50% of Chinese physicians and medical institutions were in Shanghai before 1949.
虚拟北京 Virtual Beijing
Beijing was also a focus of institutions of Western medicine. See also 1928 Chinese Medical Guide which focuses on medical institutions in Beijing.
虚拟苏州 Virtual Suzhou
Maps, images, texts. Suzhou also had signficant medical institutions in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.
老中国图像 Historical Photos of China
This project aims to locate, archive, and disseminate photographs from the substantial holdings of images of modern China held mostly in private hands overseas.
设想中国 Visualizing China
A JISC-funded project to allow users to explore and enhance more than 8000 digitised images of photographs of China taken between 1850 and 1950.
国际教会图像档案 International Mission Photography Archive
Offers historical images from Protestant and Catholic missionary collections in Britain, Norway, Germany, France, Switzerland, and the United States.